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CJortifU Slam ^rlyool Kibtary 


060 109 703 



Cornell University 

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the Cornell University Library. 

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voi«™.ii RCrnPn^ °LPA«T p-tm 


Editor Assistant Editor 

NlARCH, 1903 


I. Frontispiece, Hammtirabi Receiving; the Laws from the Sun -god of Sippara 66 

II. Editorial Introduction to the Laws of Hammurabi, Kingf of Babylonia . 67 

III. Hammurabi's Introduction to his Code of Laws ........ 68 

IV. Hammurabi's Code of Laws .... . .69 

V. Hammurabi's Conclusion ... 88 

VI. Cuneiform Text of Hammurabi's Laws (Plates I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) 9i 

Copyright^ 19OJ, by Records of the Past Exploration Society. I Entered at the Washington Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 

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MARCH. 1905 
+ + + 



THE ruins of Susa now being excavated by the distinguished explorer 
M. de Morgan have already yielded important results. He was led 
to undertake the excavation of ancient Susa from inscriptions found 
in the ruins of Babylon, from which he learned that many of the most im- 
portant monuments of the Babylonian kings had been carried, as trophies 
of war by the Elamite kings, to their capital, Susa. When he left Egypt 
in 1888 it was for the purpose of recovering from the ruins of Susa these 
monuments. He had not been long at work in Susa before he found the 
stele of Naram-Sin c. 3,800 B.C., which showed a high state of art in the 
Tigro-Euphrates valley nearly 6,000 years ago. This discovery was rapidly 
followed by others. The most important of which is the stele of Hammu- 
rabi, upon which was engraved his code of laws, c. 2,250 B.C. 

Two translations of this code have been made, one into French by 
Scheil, the assyriologist of the French Expedition to Persia, of which M. de 
Morgan is the director, and the other into German by Dr. Hugo Winckler. 
The following translation is from the latter by Dr. H. Otto Sommer and 
construed into legal phraseology by William Earl Ambrose, Esq. 

This code is the oldest collection of public laws that has yet been dis- 
covered. It is a reflection of the social conditions existing in Babylonia 
4,000 years ago. The jurist of to-day will recognize in it most of the funda- 
mental principles on which our social legislation is based. 


To the biblical student the Code of Hammurabi suggests at once a 
comparison with the Laws of Moses, which were written about 700 years 
later. But a comparative study of the two codes can only be made by 
one conversant with the conditions under which Moses promulgated his 
laws for the government of the Hebrew state and church. It has already 
been charged that Moses copied from the older code. It must be remem- 
bered that in every age and condition of society the great fundamental 
principles of jus'tice have been and must remain the same. Therefore when 
we find these principles of justice existing in both the laws of Hammurabi 
and Moses, we recognize in them the eternal precepts of right and wrong 
in human society. Granting this, a further comparison between the two 
codes reveals in the latter, a higher and what is and may be claimed to be, a 
divine ordering for the higher and spiritual condition of man. That Moses 
was familiar with the Laws of Hammurabi and doubtless had studied them 
cannot be doubted by anyone conversant with the literary and commercial 
intercourse existing between Egypt and Babylonia. The comparison of 
the two codes will form the subject of a future article in Records of the 


Hammurabi's introduction to his code of laws 

When Anu the sublime, the King of the Annunaki and Bel, the lord of 
heaven and earth, who fixed the destiny of the country, had committed 
the whole of mankind to Marduk, the son of Ea, the god of right, when 
they made him great among the Egigi, had pronounced the sublime name 
of Babylon, made it great upon earth, had established in it an eternal king- 
dom, the foundations of which are laid firm like heaven and earth, at that 
time Anu and Bel called me, Hammurabi, the great prince, who fears God, 
to -give justice a status in the country, to destroy the wicked and bad, that 
the strong should not overcome the weak, that I might rise over the block- 
headed ones; like Shamash, to illuminate the land and to further the 
welfare of humanity, Hammurabi, the prince, the one called by Bel, am 
I. To obtain riches and superabundance, bringing about everything pos- 
sible for Nippur and Durilu, the exalted protection of Ekur; who had 
restored Eridu, purified the cult of E-apsu, who fought against the four 
regions of the world, made the great name of Babel, brightened the heart 
of Marduk, his master; who (Hammurabi) does service in Esagila, the 
royal branch which Sin founded, who made rich Ur, the humble and 
subservient one, who brings riches to Gish-shir-gal, the wise King, heard 
by Shamash, the mighty one, who laid the foundations of Sippar, who 
clothed in green the tombs of Malkat, who enlarged E-babbar, which is 
like heaven; the warrior who protected Larsa, and renewed E-babbar for 
Shamash, his helper, the lord who gave new life to Uruk, who supplied 
plenty of water to its inhabitants, who raised the head of E-Anna, com- 
pleted the splendor of Anu and Nanna, the protector of the country, who 
united the scattered inhabitants of Isin, who richly supplied E-gal-mach, 
the protecting city king, brother of the god Zamamma, who firmly founded 
the settlement of Kish, surrounded with splendor. E-me-te-ur-sag doubled 
the great sanctuaries Nana; manager of the temple of Harsag-kalama, the 
grave of the enemies, whose help gains the victory; who enlarged the city of 
Cutha; who made splendid everything in E-shid-lam; the black steer who 
strikes down the enemies, the favorite of the god Tu-tu; who caused joy to 
the population of Borsippa; the sublime one, who is tireless for Ezida. the 


god-like king of the city; the wise one; the clever one, who extended the 
agriculture of Dilbat;who piled up grain for Urash, the strong one; the man 
to whom belongs the scepter and crown with which he crowns him; the 
chosen one of the goddess Mama, who fixed the place of the temple of Kish; 
who enriched the holy meals of Nintu, the careful one, who provided the eat- 
ing and drinking for Lagash and Girsu; who supplies large offerings for the 
temple of 50; who takes hold of the enemies, the chosen one of the oracle; 
who carried out the prophecy of Hallab; who caused joy to the heart of 
the Annunit, the pure prince, whose prayer is recognized by Adad; who 
set at rest the heart of Adad, the warrior in Karkar, and restored the imple- 
ments of the culture in Eud-gal-gal; the King, who lent life to the city of 
Adab; the director of E-mach; the princely King of the city, irresistible 
fighter, who gave life to the population of Mash-kan-shabri; who furnished 
superabundance to the temple of Schidlam, the wise, valiant one who forced 
the retreat of the bandits; who covered the inhabitants of Malka with mis- 
fortune; who founded richly their residence; who established pure offer- 
ings for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na; who made his Kingdom great forever; 
the princely King of the city, who subjugated the provinces along the 
Ud-kib-nun-na canal (Euphrates), according to the commandment of 
Dagon, his creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the 
exalted prince, who made radiant the countenance of Nina; who set holy 
meals before the god Nin-a-zu; who cared for their inhabitants in need, 
safely cared for their fortunes in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the 
subjects; the servant, whose deeds are pleasing to Annunit; who pleased 
Annunit in the temple Dumasch in the suburb Agade; who proclaims 
justice, leads the law, gave back to the city of Assur her gracious patron; 
who caused to dwell the name of Istar in Nineveh, in the temple E-mish- 
mish; the sublime one, who prostrates himself before the great gods, the 
descendant of the Sumu-la-ilu; the mighty son of Sin-muballit; the kingly 
seed of eternity; the mighty king; the sun of Babylon, who causes the light 
to radiate over the country Sumer and Akkad; the King whom the four 
regions of the world obey; the favorite of the god Nini, am I. When Marduk 
sent me to rule mankind, to impart judicial protection to the country, it 
was that I might establish right, justice and happiness among the people. 

Hammurabi's code of laws 

1. Any person convicted of preferring charges against another person 
which he cannot substantiate shall be put to death. 

2. In event anyone prefers charges against another person and the 
one against whom the charge is brought leaps into a body of water and is 
thereby drowned, that person who preferred the charge shall thereupon 
take possession of the property of the one so drowned. But if the person 
against whom the charge is preferred is not drowned, the person who made 
the charge shall be put to death and the one accused shall take possession 
of the property of his accuser. 

3. Any person preferring a charge of malfeasance against a juror 
sitting in the case at bar, which charge he is unable to substantiate, and 
the hearing being one at the conclusion of which the death penalty may be 
adjudged, the person so preferring such charge shall be put to death. 

4. Any person attempting to suborn a juror by a bribe of grain or gold 
shall be deemed to be guilty of felony and shall receive such punishment as 


might be adjudged proper to inflict upon a person guilty of the offence for 
which such trial was being conducted. i • • 

5. Any judge conducting a trial and rendering a written decision 
therein shall receive 12 fold the punishment administered by reason ot his 
decision, if the decision is subsequently proved to be erroneous. 

6. Any person convicted of the ofifence of selling property stolen either 
from the citv or the temple shall be put to death and the person who receives 
the stolen goods from such offender shall likewise be put to death. 

7. Any person purchasing silver, gold or a slave, either male or female, 
a beef or an ass or any other personal property from another person 
or from the slave of another person, without witnesses to the transaction 
or agreement, shall be adjudged to be a thief and shall be put to death. 

8. Any person who without right sells a beef, a sheep, an ass or swine 
or other personal property, if it be the property of the temple or of the city, 
shall make restitution thereof 30 fold, if it be the property of a freedman, 
10 fold; in event such person has nothing with which to make restitution in 
accordance with the foregoing provision, he shall be deemed to be a thief 
and shall suffer the death penalty. 

9. If anyone has lost an article of personal property and discovers it in 
the possession of some other person and that person excuses his posses- 
sion by the statement that still another person sold it to him in the presence 
of witnesses and that he has paid therefor, and thereupon the owner of the 
article declares that he is able to bring witnesses to identify his property; it 
then becomes incumbent upon the possessor to produce the one whom he 
alleged sold him the article and likewise a witness to the transaction of 
purchase. The owner shall likewise produce witnesses to substantiate his 
ownership and all the witnesses shall proceed before a judge and all the 
witnesses being duly put upon their oaths, shall testify to the facts before 
the judge. In event the owner proves his property the seller of the article 
shall be deemed to be a thief and shall suffer the death penalty. The pur- 
chaser shall make restitution of the property to the owner and shall receive 
back from the, seller the purchase price. 

10. In event of a failure on the part of the purchaser, vendor and the 
witnesses before whom he alleges he consummated the transaction to appear 
in the case, and the owner does produce witnesses to establish his ownership 
in said property, the purchaser, in failing to produce his witnesses to the 
transaction and the vendor as aforesaid, shall be adjudged to be a thief and 
shall suffer the death penalty. The property shall be restored to the owner. 

11. In event of a failure, however, on the part of the claimant of the lost 
property to produce at the hearing competent witnesses to estabHsh his 
ownership, he shall be deemed guilty of having slandered the purchaser and 
shall suffer the death penalty. 

12. In event the vendor of property which he has sold without right, 
shall die prior to a hearing upon the claim of the owner of the property, 
then the vendee shall receive from the estate of the vendor 5 fold the pur- 
chase price of the article disposed of to him by the decedent. 

13. In event of inability to produce witnesses in such a case at the first 
hearing thereon, the judge shall continue the trial of the cause for a period 
not to exceed 6 months. In event of failure of either party to produce 
witnesses for their respective claims within that period, the one failing so 
to do shall be deemed guilty and shall receive such punishment as is herein- 
before provided for in such cases. 


14. Anyone adjudged to be guilty of kidnapping shall be put to death. 

15. Anyone who shall abduct a slave of the court, or a female slave of 
the court, or the male or female slave of a freedman, shall be taken beyond 
the city gate and put to death. 

16. Anyone harboring a runaway slave, either male or female, of the 
court, or of a freedman, and failing to produce him or her on the public 
demand of the major domo of the court, or the house of a freedman, upon 
conviction thereof shall be deemed guilty of felony and shall sufifer death. 

17. Anyone capturing a male or female slave, and returning said male 
or female slave to his or her master, shall be compensated by the master to 
the extent of 2 shekels of silver. 

18. In event a runaway slave shall refuse or fail to name his master, 
the person capturing such slave shall produce him before the court where 
his identity shall be examined into and upon its being ascertained the slave 
shall be returned to his master. 

19. Any person capturing a runaway slave and detaining him in his 
house and exercising ownership over him, upon conviction thereof shall be 
deemed guilty of felony and shall sufifer the death penalty. 

20. In event a runaway slave escapes from his captor, the captor shall 
make oath to the owner of the slave as to the circumstances, and thereupon 
shall be released from any charge by reason of the escape. 

21. Anyone seeking to burglarize a house, by breaking into it, shall 
be deemed guilty of felony and shall sufifer the death penalty. The execu- 
tion shall take place at the point of the breach in the house and he shall be 
there interred. 

22. Any person convicted of a robbery shall be put to death. 

23. In event anyone shall be robbed, and the person committing the 
robbery shall escape, the party so deprived of his property shall make claim 
under oath, enumerating the property of which he has been robbed, where- 
upon the municipality or ( ) wherein said robbery was committed. 

shall compensate him for his loss. 

24. In the event of the abduction of any person, the municipality or 
( ) in which the abduction took place shall pay to the personal rep- 
resentatives of the abducted person, i silver "mine." 

25. Any person who shall be present at a fire occurring in the house 
of another, and while present at such fire appropriates any article belonging 
to the proprietor of the house in which the fire occurs, shall be deemed 
guilty of a felony, and as a punishment therefor shall be thrown into the 
burning fire. 

26. If an ofificer of the king or [drafted] man who has been ordered 
to march with the king's troops, fails so to do and procures a mercenary 
or substitute who performs the duty incumbent upon such ofificer, or 
[drafted] man and the ofificer or [drafted] man shall die while his mercenary 
or substitute is with the king's troops, thereupon the mercenary or sub- 
stitute shall be entitled to take possession of the estate of his deceased 

2"^. If an ofificer or [drafted] man is captured during a reverse of the 
king, and during his imprisonment his property is delivered into the hands 
of some other person, he shall upon his release and return to his home be 
reinstated in the possession of his property. 

28. In event of the capture of an ofificer of the king or [drafted] man 
upon a defeat sufifered by his king, the officer's son shall take possession of 


his property and that son shall be deemed the proper person to exercise 
the control and possession over his father's field and garden. 

29. In event his son [the son of an officer or drafted man] by reason 
of his infancy is incapable of taking possession of his father's property, the 
son's mother shall be given ^ the field and garden of the father and shall 
be charged v^rith the maintenance and support of such son until he shall 
reach maturity. 

30. In event an officer of the king or [drafted] man fails to make 
provision for the cultivation of his field, garden and the care of his house, 
or gives them in payment to some other person who enters into possession 
thereof and occupies the same for the period of 3 years, vs^hereupon such 
officer or [drafted] man returns to claim such field, garden or house, the 
officer or [drafted] man shall not be deemed the rightful owner, and the 
property shall remain in the possession of the person occupying it. 

31. In event he [an officer of the king or a man] shall lease his prop- 
erty for the period of one year and at the termination of said lease he returns 
to take possession of said property, he shall be entitled to the possession 

32. Any person purchasing the freedom of an officer or man captured 
while on a march with his king, shall be repaid the ransom money by the 
captured officer or man, in event the officer or man has property or means 
sufficient to repay the purchaser of his freedom. In event such ransomed 
person has no means by which to repay the person purchasing his freedom, 
the municipality in which such captured person has his domicile shall com- 
pensate the purchaser of his freedom, the charge therefor to be first made 
upon the temple. In event of insufficient funds in the temple to make 
payment then the state shall defray the charge. The field, garden and 
house of the ransomed officer or man shall not be charged for repayment. 

33. Any [officer] or [soldier] who deserts and substitutes a mer- 
cenary in his stead and the mercenary goes in his stead, then the deserter 
shall be deemed guilty of felony and punished by death. 

34. If [officer] or a [soldier] injures the property of the king he shall 
be deemed guilty of felony and punished by death. If anyone delivers an 
officer of the king into bondage, and in so dehvering the officer into bondage 
he bribes one in authority to assist him in the delivery and likewise appro- 
priates to his own use property belonging to and bestowed upon the officer 
by his king, that wrongdoer shall be deemed guilty of felony and put to 

35. Anyone purchasing a beef or small animal given by the king to 
an officer [for the officer's rations] shall forfeit the purchase price. 

36. The field, garden and house of a taxpayer cannot be sold [is 
exempt from levy]. 

37. Anyone purchasing a field, garden or house of an officer, soldier 
or taxpayer the slate shall be washed [the contract therefor shall be null 
and void] and the purchase price shall be refunded'to the owner [and he, 
the owner, shall retain his property]. 

38. A captain, soldier or taxpayer cannot sell the property of his feudal 
lord, wife or daughter, or pledge such property for the payment of his debts. 

39. He [captain, soldier or taxpayer] may assign the field, garden or 
house which he has purchased with his own money and which he possesses 
in his own right for the payment of his debts. He may also convey such 
property to his wife or daughter. 


40. He [captain, soldier or taxpayer] may sell [lease] to a trader or 
employee of the city his field, garden and house for usage. 

41. Anyone fencing in the field, garden and house of an officer, soldier 
or rentpayer and furnishing the fencing pales therefor shall, upon the return 
of the officer, soldier or rentpayer, deliver to him the field, garden or house 
and the fencing so erected, and the fencing shall become and be the prop- 
erty of the officer, soldier or rentpayer and shall not be taken from the 
land of the owner by the erector thereof. 

42. Anyone entering into the possession of a field upon agreement 
and neglecting to raise grain upon that field shall be held accountable to 
the owner thereof for a quantity of grain commensurate with that grown 
in the neighboring fields, upon it being shown that he has failed to comply 
with the conditions in regard to the cultivation of the land. 

43. In event of failure of such a person to cultivate a field he shall be 
held accountable to the owner thereof for the payment to him of grain 
commensurate with that grown in the neighboring fields and he shall 
further be compelled to plow and sow the said field and deliver the field, 
so planted and sown, back to its owner. 

44. In event the person takes possession of a waste field for the pur- 
pose of making it arable, but fails to make the field arable, he shall be com- 
pelled to cultivate the barren field in the fourth year [after his having 
taken possession of it] , harrow it, seed it and deliver the field to the owner, 
and shall be compelled to render to the owner for every 10 "gan" [of grain he 
might have raised had he been diligent] 10 "gur" of grain. 

45. In event anyone enters into an agreement [leases] for a field and 
under that agreement a fixed compensation is paid therefor to the owner, 
and bad weather intervenes and destroys the [growing] crop, the loss 
shall be borne by the lessee. 

46. In event no definite compensation is fixed for the use of the field, 
but a proportionate share of the products is agreed upon [for its use], 
the lessor and the lessee shall divide the grain cultivated upon that field 
in accordance with their agreement (^ or ^). 

47. In event the lessee, because of a failure in the first year of his 
tenancy to receive maintenance [to raise enough grain for his maintenance] 
from the field, notwithstanding his earnest effort to so do, the owner thereof 
may not hold him responsible for his share; the field has been tenanted 
[and an attempt at cultivation made] and at the next harvest the owner 
shall receive grain in accordance with his agreement. 

48. Anyone leasing a field which is devastated by tempest or by a 
drought is not compelled to account to the owner for his share of grain 
during that year, the slate is dissolved in water [the obligation is annulled] 
and an accounting is to be had for that year at the termination of the 
succeeding one. 

49. Any person leasing a tillable field to a business man and borrowing 
money from him, and at the same time directing the business man to culti- 
vate the field and to plant thereon grain or sesame and to harvest grain 
raised thereon for his benefit, and the business man or his subtenant raises 
upon the field grain or sesame, the person so leasing to the business man 
shall, at the harvest, receive the grain and sesame which are raised upon the 
field and pay to the business man grain for the money advanced by him, 
besides interest on such money advanced by the business man, and shall in 
addition thereto give to the business man such grain as is necessary for the 


sustenance of the business man or such cultivator of the soil as has been 
employed by the business man for the purpose of raising grain upon his 
field. [Provide for maintenance of the laborers who actually do the work.] 

50. If anyone borrows money upon a cultivated grainfield or culti- 
vated sesame field he shall receive the grain or sesame which is grown upon 
that field. He shall pay back to the person making him the loan the 
money borrowed, with interest. 

51. In event he is unable to repay the loan or money borrowed, he 
shall deliver to the lender grain or sesame [equal in value] to the amount 
of the sum borrowed, with interest, in accordance with the rate of interest 
provided by the royal tarifif [legal rate]. 

52. In event anyone borrows money upon a field and fails to raise 
grain or sesame whereby to repay his creditors, his indebtedness is not 

53. Anyone failing to keep his [irrigating] dam in repair and through 
his neglect and laziness a break occurs in the dam and his neighbors' lands 
are flooded by the overflow of the water therefrom, he shall compensate the 
owner of the damaged land for his loss of grain or other property [occa- 
sioned by the overflow]. 

54. In event he is unable to repay or make good the damage incurred 
by his neglect, his property is to be sold and those incurring damage 
through his negligence are to divide his property among themselves in 
accordance with the extent of the several losses occasioned by his neg- 

55. If anyone opens his canal for the purpose of irrigation [in a neg- 
ligent manner] and thereby floods the fields [of his neighbors] shall be 
held to account to those neighbors and to pay them grain corresponding 
with their [the neighbors'] loss. 

56. Anyone negligently and maliciously found to be guilty of flooding 
his neighbor's tillable fields shall measure out to that neighbor "gan" for 
every 10 "gur" of grain [destroyed thereby] . 

57. Any shepherd who, without the permission of the owner of a field, 
permits his cattle to graze upon another's field, shall permit the owner of 
the field upon which his cattle have grazed, to harvest his [the shepherd's] 
field and shall pay in addition thereto [to the owner of the devastated field] 
20 "gur" of grain for every 10 "gan" destroyed by his wrong doing. 

58. In event a shepherd, after his herd has left the general pasture 
and been coralled at the city gate, allows them to graze upon the field of 
another, that shepherd shall be compelled to keep that field which he has 
allowed his cattle to graze upon [in exchange for his own] and at the 
harvest time shall pay to the owner of the devastated field, for every 10 
"gan," 60 "gur" of grain [destroyed by his wrong doing]. 

59. Anyone trespassing upon the land of another and cutting wood 
therefrom, shall pay to the owner thereof ^ "mine" of gold. 

60. Anyone intrusting to a gardener a field [uncultivated] in order 
that it may be planted as a garden and the gardener thereupon enters upon 
the field and cultivates it and cares for it for a period of 4 years, the culti- 
vator and the owner thereof shall divide with one another at the end of 
the fifth year the products of the field. 

61. In event the gardener does not complete the planting of the field 
and leaves a part uncultivated [at the end of the fourth year] the unculti- 


vated part shall be deemed to be his share, and the owner thereof shall 
have the cultivated portion. 

62. In event the gardener takes the field which has been intrusted to 
him, if it be a wheat field, and fails to cultivate it, the gardener shall be 
compelled to pay to the owner such sums of money or such an amount of 
grain as might have been raised upon the field in accordance with what 
has been raised upon adjoining fields, and shall moreover place the field 
in a cultivated condition. 

63. If anyone shall redeem waste land and make a cultivated field out 
of the same and return it to its owner the owner shall measure out for a 
year 10 "gur" of grain for every 10 "gan" [of land]. [The 10 "gur" of 
grain for each 10 "gan" of land shall be paid but once in compensation for 
the services rendered in making the land productive.] 

64. Anyone leasing a field for the purposes of cultivation shall, so 
long as he retains possession thereof, render f of the profit thereupon to 
the owner and shall retain ^ for himself. 

65. In event the lessee does not work the field and the profit thereof 
decreases he shall give to the owner thereof profit commensurate with the 
products on neighboring fields. 

[There are 5 rows of text missing here which have been chiseled out. 
The following paragraphs were obtained from copies out of the library of 

a. Anyone selling to another a date garden [borrowing money from 
another and giving therefor a date garden as security] upon condition that 
the dates grown thereon shall be the consideration [security] for the money 
paid by the purchaser [lender], the owner of the field shall be entitled 
to harvest the dates and return to the purchaser [lender] the purchase 
price [borrowed money] for the same and interest according to the order 
[covenants] of the contract, and may dispose of the dates as he deems 

b. If anyone leases property from another for the term of a year, paying 
therefor [in advance] and the lessee shall be ejected by the owner, he, the 
lessee, shall be entitled to receive back such portion of the money as is 
represented by the unexpired term. 

c. [Anyone] owing a debt of grain or money to another which he is 
unable to pay back, shall be entitled to produ'ce other possessions which he 
may have equal in value [to the advancement] and discharge his indebted- 
ness [by delivering them to his creditors]. 

[The enumeration of the paragraphs from this point gives rise to the 
supposition that the gap takes in 35 paragraphs and goes on from 100.] 

100. Anyone borrowing money shall, on the day of settlement, repay 
the same to his creditor, with interest, according to the memoranda of 
his contract [for payment]. 

loi. Anyone advancing money to another for the purpose of enabling 
the borrower to engage in business elsewhere, and the borrower to whom 
he advances failing to profit by his enterprise in such foreign place, he, 
the lender, shall receive back from the borrower the money so advanced. 

102. In event anyone has an advance made to him of money for an 
enterprise in which he [subsequently] suffers, the loser shall return the 
money advanced by his creditors. 

103. In event an advancement is made to another and the borrower, 
while on his journey in pursuance of the enterprise for which the money 


is advanced, is robbed, he shall return and make statement under oath to 
his creditor of the circumstances of the robbery and thereupon shall be 
discharged [from liability on account of loan]. 

104. Anyone delivering to a middleman, factor or broker, grain, 
sesame or other .merchandise to sell [for his account], the middleman, 
factor or broker shall give to him a receipt or written obligation setting 
forth the commission and conditions [contract of brokerage] under which 
sales and disposals of the properties are to be made and shall, in return, 
take a receipt [a written authority to sell] from his consignee. - The middle- 
man, broker or factor shall not use the money of his business man [con- 
signee] unless receipted for [authorized in writing]. 

105. If the middleman, factor or broker is negligent and has failed to 
take receipts for money paid by him to the business man, he is estopped 
from making a subsequent claim therefor. 

106. If anyone furnishes money to a middleman, broker or factor and 
said middleman, broker or factor afterward denies the receipt of such 
money and the person advancing the money shall make oath to the trans- 
action and produce witnesses to substantiate his claim and the claim is 
found to be a just one, he shall be entitled to reclaim from the middleman, 
broker or factor 3 fold the money advanced by him to the middleman, 
broker or factor. 

107. Anyone advancing money to a middleman, broker or factor which 
has been returned to him in full, and at the payment, the lender disputes 
the payment, the party making the advance, upon the unjustness of his 
dispute being determined, shall compensate the middleman or broker by 
paying to him 6 fold the amount advanced, repaid and disputed by him. 

108. Any restaurant [inn] keeper who for the payment of drinks [or 
entertainment] shall [demand] and receive grain according to gross 
weight instead of money and if it is shown by the payer that the drink [or 
entertainment] is of a lesser value that that charged for, the innkeeper 
shall be deemed guilty of misconduct [misdemeanor] and thrown into the 
water [in punishment]. 

109. If a restaurant or innkeeper allows conspirators to meet at his 
or her house and these conspirators are brought to trial before the courts 
[and are convicted], the innkeeper shall be put to death. 

no. In event a virgin of the temple opens [sells liquors] or enters a 
bar for the purpose of drink she shall be burnt up. 

111. An innkeeper delivering 60 "ka usakani" Hquor [to one on credit] 
shall be repaid at the harvest 50 "ka" of grain. 

112. If anyone while on a journey intrusts to another person gold, 
silver, precious stones or other personal property and the bailee fails to 
transport all such property to the destination determined upon [and di- 
rected by the bailor] , but appropriates it [or any part thereof] to his own 
use, he, the bailee, shall give back to the bailor 5 fold the amount which 
has been appropriated by him. 

113. If anyone receives an order from another for gold or grain and 
the giver of the order takes out of the house for safe-keeping [the storage 
place of the article for which the order was given] without the knowledge 
of the person to whom the order was given, any part of the gold or grain, 
he shall be held amenable and shall return the gold or grain to the person 
holding his order and [in punishment therefor the property of the wrong- 
doer shall be confiscated] his property shall be confiscated. 


114. Anyone without right demanding grain or gold from another and 
under duress forcing its delivery shall for each and every offence committed 
by him pay \ "mine" of silver [to the injured person]. 

115. If anyone having a claim against another for grain or gold shall 
exercise judicial restraint over that person, and that person dies a natural 
death while undergoing imprisonment, the person occasioning the im- 
prisonment shall not be held accountable therefor. 

116. If, however, such imprisoned person dies in the house of the 
claimant from the effects of blows or harsh treatment inflicted upon him, 
the person causing his restraint [the murderer] shall be produced in court; 
in event the person dying was a free man, the son of the person causing 
his death shall suffer the death penalty in event of conviction. If on the 
other hand the decedent was a slave, the murderer shall pay \ "mine" of 
money [to the decedent's owner]. The murderer's estate shall become 
the property of the slave's owner [or the heirs of the freeman]. 

117. Anyone who shall, by reason of his indebtedness, sell his wife's 
son or daughter for money or hires them [or either of them] out for forced 
labor in order that he may pay his indebtedness with the proceeds realized 
from their labor, the person so hired out shall be compelled to work for 3 
years for the purchaser [hirer] and in the fourth year he or she shall be 

118. In event a slave, male or female, is hired out for forced labor and 
the person hiring them rehires them to someone else, he shall not be 
adjudged to be at fault in so doing. 

119. Anyone who owes a debt and for payment thereof sells a female 
slave, who has born children, shall be compelled to furnish money for the 
purpose of emancipating her. 

120. If anyone stores grain in the house of another and an accident 
happens to the grain, or the bailee converts the grain to his own use and 
afterward shall deny the existence of any such grain stored in his house, 
then the owner upon making claim under oath for his grain [which is sub- 
stantiated], shall be entitled to receive from the bailee the grain lost or 
converted by the bailee to his own use in undiminished quantity. 

121. Anyone storing grain in the house of another shall compensate 
the bailee by paying to him 5 "ka" of grain for every i "gur" of grain 
stored during the year. 

122. If anyone intrusts to another gold, silver or other personal prop- 
erty for safe-keeping, he shall exhibit the articles to be stored to a witness 
and thereby close the contract for safe-keeping [which shall be a binding 
contract of bailment]. 

123. In event the witness to the contract [alleged to have been made] 
shall afterward appear and deny its existence, the bailee shall be discharged 
of any Hability on account of the alleged contract. 

124. Anyone depositing with another one gold, silver or any personal 
property before a witness, shall be entitled to have restored to him the 
article in undiminished quantity. 

125. Anyone receiving for bailment [for hire] another's property, 
which property, together with his own property, is lost or stolen while in 
his possession, shall return [the value of] that which was given him [bailed 
with him] for safe-keeping to the owner or bailor. The bailee may recover 
it [the stolen property from the thief] and shall not be adjudged to have 
committed an ofifence. 


126. If anyone deprived of property by fraud shall assert his claim 
thereto under oath he shall receive back from the one practicing the fraud 
upon him that which he claims [upon proof of his right so to do]. 

127. Anyone slandering a virgin of the temple or the wife of another 
person and being unable to substantiate the slander [the truth of which 
slander he cannot substantiate] shall be marked upon the brow. 

128. If anyone takes to himself a wife without a formal contract [of 
marriage being entered upon], the woman so taken shall not be deemed 
to be the legal wife [of the man so taking her to his bed]. 

129. If anyone's wife is captured with another person [committing 
adultery] both are to be thrown into the water. In case the husband of 
the wife forgives his wife and the king his slave [no other punishment shall 
be inflicted]. 

130. If anyone violates [has carnal knowledge of] the wife of another 
one, the wife not prior thereto having had knowledge of a man, and the 
assault occurs in the house of her father and the assailant is captured, he, 
the assailant, shall be put to death and the woman shall be regarded as 

131. If a husband slanders or brings charges against a wife [to the 
efifect that she is an adulteress] [and puts her aside], though she is not 
discovered sleeping with another one, she is to make oath before God and 
[she shall upon making oath as to her innocence] return to her house. 

132. If against anyone's wife, on account of another man, accusation 
is made and she is found sleeping with another man, then shall she jump 
into the river in place of her husband. [A woman found guilty of adultery 
shall be drowned.] 

133. In event a husband is taken prisoner of war while in his house, 
and leaves [makes provisions for his wife's support] life sustenance and 
[after provision for her support has been made] his wife leaves her house 
and home and goes into another home; she, because she has not preserved 
the sanctity of her home, but has gone into another house, shall be taken 
before the court [and on conviction thereof shall be] thrown into the water. 

134. If anyone is taken prisoner of war and there is no life sustenance in 
his house [and makes no provision for his wife's support] and his wife goes 
into another house, she shall in that case be adjudged guiltless. 

135. If anyone is taken prisoner of war and there is no life sustenance 
[support provided for his wife] in the house and his wife goes into another 
house and there are children bom to her in the house to which she goes, 
and later her husband returns to his home, then shall his wife return to 
him; the children, however, shall follow their father. 

136. If anyone leaves his home, runs away [deserts and abandons his 
wife] and thereupon his wife goes into another house; if then he returns 
and wishes to take back his wife to himself, the wife of the fugitive shall 
not return to her husband, because he has torn himself away from his 
family and run away. 

137. If anyone has the intention to cast from him a side wife [con- 
cubine], who has born children to him and his legal wife has presented him 
with children, he shall give to each wife her respective children and give 
her a useful portion of field, garden and possessions that she may raise her 
children. [In event of her husband's death and all her children reach their 
piajority] when she has raised her children she shall receive [an allotment 


equal to a son's share of his property] a portion of all that her children 
receive as is allotted to a son. She may then Hkewise marry the man of 
her choice. 

138. If a man divorces his wife [because of her barrenness], who has 
born him no children, he shall give back to her the sum of the present 
from him to her at the wedding [the money he gave her for a wedding 
gift] and also the dowry which she brought him from her father's house. 

139. In event a man marries a woman without presenting to her a mar- 
riage portion and subsequently there is a legal separation declared, he shall 
give to her i "mine" of money. 

140. If he is a freedman [emancipated slave] he is to give to her ^ of 
a "mine" of money. 

141. In event a man's legal wife shall depart from him after having 
been guilty of extravagance, and before her departure she is brought to 
court by her husband and the husband solicits a divorce, which is granted, 
she shall be permitted to depart and the husband shall not be compelled to 
compensate her. In event the husband does not desire to be divorced and 
desires to take another wife, the one deemed guilty of extravagance shall 
be compelled to remain in the house of her husband as a servant. 

142. In event the wife quarrels with her husband and shall produce 
proof sustaining her justification and she is found to be blameless, she 
shall [be permitted] to return to the home of her father and in addition 
thereto receive compensation from her husband. 

143. If she is adjudged to be guilty of having dissipated [her hus- 
band's property] and neglected her husband, she shall be thrown into the 

144. If anyone [a man] takes a wife and his wife gives her husband a 
servant, and the servant has children by him, and the man then declares 
his intention of taking a side wife [concubine], he shall not be allowed so 
to do. He shall have no side wife [concubine]. 

145. If anyone [a man] takes a wife and she does not bear him any 
children, and he has the intention to take a side wife [concubine], if he takes 
a side wife and brings her into his house she shall not stand on the same 
footing with his wife. 

146. If a man takes a wife and this one gives her husband a maid as 
wife, and she [the maid] bears him children, and then this maid tries to 
place herself on an equality with her mistress, because she has born chil- 
dren, her owner is not to sell her for money, but he is to pay her in silver 
and reckon her among the servants. 

147. If she has not born children, then her master may sell her for 

148. If any man shall marry a woman and she becomes sick (?) and 
he then marries another woman, he shall not cast out the sick wife, but 
shall keep her in his house and support [and protect] her so long as she 

149. In event the wife does not desire to live in the house of her 
husband he shall be compelled to return to her the dowry which she has 
brought from her father's house and she shall be permitted to take her 

150. If a man shall give to his wife a field, garden, house or other 
property and gives her written evidence of the conveyance and shall there- 
after die, in event her sons lay no claim to the property [by way of hire for 


services] the widow shall be permitted to bestow upon the son of her 
choice the estate given her by her husband and is not bound by law to 
give to her other sons any part thereof. 

151. In event a widow marries a second time and her second husband, 
prior to the marriage, had an estate, this estate shall be exempt from attach- 
ment by the creditors of the wife. The wife's estate shall likewise be 
exempt from attachment by creditors of the husband [provided it was 
acquired prior to her second marriage]. 

152. In event the [second] husband and wife jointly contract an in- 
debtedness subsequent to the marriage they shall be jointly liable therefor. 

153. If the wife of a man occasions her husband's death, because of her 
love for another man, she shall be deemed guilty of murder and put to death. 

154. If anyone has carnal knowledge of his daughter, he is to be driven 
from the town. 

155. If anyone betroths his son to a girl and the son associates with 
her [accepts her in marriage] and the father of the son is afterward con- 
victed of having committed adultery with his son's wife, the father is to 
be bound and thrown into the water. 

156. If anyone betroths his son to a girl and his son does not recognize 
her [accept her in marriage] and thereupon that one [the son's father] 
sleeps with her, he, the son's father, shall pay her ^ a "mine" of money and 
shall give back to her everything that she has brought along from her 
father's house. She may then marry the man of her choice. 

157. If anyone sleeps with his mother after his father [has slept with 
her], then both the wife and son are to be burnt up. 

158. If the son of any man is caught with the chief [first or legal 
wife] of his father, after his father has cohabited with her, if she has born 
children, he is to be driven out of his father's house. 

159. If anyone brings personal property into the house of a proposed 
father-in-law [in payment to the father for his daughter] and thereafter 
refuses to marry the daughter, he shall forfeit such property as he has 
brought in payment for his wife to the father. 

160. If anyone brings personal property into the house of his proposed 
father-in-law and the father-in-law receives the same and then refuses to 
permit that person to take his daughter from the house, the father of the 
daughter shall return the property he has received and upon the return 
thereof shall be discharged from his obligation to the suitor for his daughter. 

161. Should anyone bring into the house of his proposed father-in-law 
and pay to him the grain demanded for his daughter and thereupon is 
slandered by a third person, whose desire it is to marry the daughter, and 
the father thereupon refuses to permit the one paying the grain to take 
his daughter, he, the slandered person, shall be entitled to receive back 
the grain he has paid to the father of the daughter and the party slandering 
him shall not be permitted to marry the daughter. 

162. Anyone marrying a wife, who shall bear him sons and then die, 
will not be compelled to return to his wife's father her dowry. The dowry 
upon her death shall belong to her sons. 

163. In event anyone marries a wife and she shall die without issue, 
the father of the wife shall return to the husband the grain treasure which 
has been paid him by the husband. The dowry shall revert to the wife's 

164. In event the father fails to return the grain treasure paid for his 


daughter by her husband, her husband shall be entitled to deduct from the 
dowry, which belongs to her father, the amount thereof, and shall then pay 
whatsoever remains of the dowry to her father. 

165. In event a father during his lifetihie gives to a favored son his 
field and executes conveyance thereof to that son and then dies and leaves 
other sons, the favored son shall receive from his father's estate the field 
presented to him during the lifetime of his father and the balance of his 
estate shall be divided among those not so favored. 

166. In event he chobses wives for his adult sons, before his minor 
sons attain maturity, and then dies, the adult sons shall divide the property 
equally among themselves, after having set aside a sufficient portion of 
the estate, to enable their minor brothers to provide grain treasure with 
which to purchase wives. 

167. If anyone marries a woman who bears him children and the 
mother thereupon dies, and the husband then remarries and has children 
by his second wife, and thereupon the husband dies, the property shall be 
divided among all the children per capita. The property left by the first 
wife shall go to her children and that of the second wife to her children. 

168. Anyone proposing to disinherit his son shall go before a tribunal 
and there declare his intentions to so do, whereupon a hearing shall be had 
and if the son is found to be not guilty of conduct which shall justify his 
disinheritance, the father shall not be permitted to disinherit him. 

169. In event the father establishes misconduct on the part of the son, 
such as would justify disinheritance, the son shall be forgiven for the first 
offence, but upon repetition thereof shall be deemed guilty of having com- 
mitted a grave offence and shall be disinherited. 

170. If a man marries a woman who bears him sons and he also has 
children by a slave, who, during the father's lifetime, were recognized as 
his sons and declared to be such, and the father then dies, the children of 
both the wife and the slave shall divide equally the father's estate. Never- 
theless the children of the wife shall be preferred in the choosing of the 
portions of said divisions. 

171. In event, however, the father of children by a slave does not 
recognize them during his lifetime as his children, "my sons," the children 
of the slave shall not be entitled to share with the children of the wife, 
upon the death of the father, but the slave and her children shall be emanci- 
pated and no claim upon their services shall be permitted to be made by 
children of the wife. The wife shall be permitted to receive her dowry and 
the property given her by her husband during his lifetime, by written con- 
veyance, and shall have the use and occupation of her deceased husband's 
house, so long as she shall live, which house may not be sold upon her 
husband's death. The property of the wife shall descend to her children. 

172. In event the husband has bestowed no gift during her lifetime 
upon the wife, she shall receive her dowry and in addition thereto, a portion 
of her husband's estate commensurate with the portion of all of her children. 
In event her sons eject her from the homestead, she may proceed before a 
tribunal and there assert her claim; if it be proved that her sons have wrong- 
fully ejected her, she may remain in her husband's house. In event a 
widow desires to leave her husband's house she shall bestow upon her sons 
the gifts which her husband had given her, but she may retain her dowry 
and remarry if she desires. 

173. In event a widow marries and there is issue born to her and 


thereupon she dies, her dowry shall be divided between the children of her 
first and second husbands [per capita] . 

174. If she does not bear sons to her second husband the sons of her 
first husband shall receive her entire dowry. 

175. When a slave of the state or the slave of a freedman marries the 
daughter of a freedman and issue is born of such marriage, the owner of 
said slave shall not be permitted to reduce to slavery the children of such 
marriage. If he should so do they shall be deemed to be free children. 

176. If a state slave or the slave of a freedman marries anyone's daugh- 
ter, and after he has married her and she has moved into that one's house, 
taking with her the dowry of her father's house, they both have settled 
down and founded a household of their own, have acquired wealth, and 
thereupon that slave dies, then this freeborn woman shall take her dowry 
and all that which she and her husband have acquired since their settling 
down; she shall divide it into two parts and the owner of the slave shall 
take I and the freeborn woman shall take the other ^ for her children. If 
the freeborn woman did not have a dowry, she shall divide everything into 
two parts which her husband shall have acquired since their settling down, 
and the owner shall take | and the freeborn woman shall take the other ^ 
for her children. 

177. Any widow, who shall desire to enter into a marriage contract 
having ungrown children, shall not be permitted to enter into the mar- 
riage relation with another person without first gaining permission from 
the court. If she marries, the value of the estate of her former husband 
shall be determined by the court and it shall then be given into the custody 
of the widow and the second husband. The property shall be kept in good 
order, the children maintained and no disposition [by sale] of the estate 
shall be made. Anyone purchasing such property shall forfeit the pur- 
chase price and the property shall be returned to its owner. 

178. If the father of a consecrated one [a virgin of the temple] or a 
public girl [prostitute for hire regulated by city] has given her a dowry and 
a certificate thereunto, which certificate contains no provision for the dispo- 
sition of the property and fails to give her a right to dispose thereof as she 
may desire, dies, her brothers are to receive her field and garden, according 
to the size of her share, and are to give her grain, oil and milk and place her 
in peace [provide for her safe-keeping]. If her brothers do not give her 
grain, oil and milk, according to her share, and do not place her in peace, 
her field and garden are to be given over to a farmer whom she approves, 
and the farmer shall provide for her. She shall have the field, garden and 
everything which she has inherited from her father so long as she lives, 
but she shall not sell it or dispose of it to another one. Her child's portion 
[heritage] belongs to her brothers. [Life interest with remainder to 

179. If the father of a consecrated one or a public gin has given her a 
dowry and has given her a certificate thereof, and has specified therein that 
she may dispose of her dowry to whom she pleases, giving to her full power 
of disposition thereof, and the father then dies, she may thereupon dispose 
of her heritage to whom it pleases her to so do. Her brothers may inter- 
pose no objection. 

180. If a father gives to his daughter — marriageable or public girl — 
and then dies, she is to receive a child's protection of the paternal estate, 
and as long as she lives is to have the use thereof. What she leaves 


behind belongs to her brothers [life estate with remainder to brothers]. 

181. In event a father, who dedicated his daughter to the temple, 
thereupon gives her no dowry and then the father dies, she shall receive 
from her father's estate [the use of for life] ^ of her portion of the estate 
so long as she shall live and at her death her share of the estate is to revert 
to her brothers. 

182. In event the father should fail to bestow on his daughter [virgin 
of the temple] a dowry prior to his death, she shall receive ^ of a child's 
portion from her father's estate, but she shall not be entrusted with the 
management thereof. She may, however, make whatsoever disposition 
of this property by law, as she may desire. 

183. If anyone gives to his daughter, who is the ofifspring of a concu- 
bine, a dowry with a certificate thereof, and then gives her in marriage, 
and the father dies, she is to receive no portion of the paternal heritage. 

184. If the father of the daughter of a concubine does not give a 
dowry to the daughter and does not provide for her in marriage, and the 
father dies, the daughter's brothers are to give her a dowry in keeping 
with the paternal fortune, and provide for her marriage. 

185. In event of the adoption of a child by a person who shall give to 
the child his own name and nurture the child to maturity, the [natural] 
parents of the child shall not be permitted to claim it [of its foster parents] . 

186. In event of the misconduct of the child he may be returned to his 
father's house [by his foster parents] . 

187. The son of a gallant [libertine] in the service of the palace or of 
a public girl [public prostitute] cannot be demanded back [from the per- 
sons who cared for and raised him. 

188. If a workman adopts a child for the purpose of rearing him and 
teaches him his trade, the child cannot be demanded back again. 

189. If he has failed to teach him his trade, the son, upon reaching 
maturity, can return to his father's house. 

190. In event an adopted child is not permitted to associate with the 
children of his foster parents, he may at maturity return to his father's 

191. If anyone [unmarried] adopts a child and afterwards founds a 
home and rears children of his own, and then attempts to cast out the foster 
child, shall not be permitted so to do unless he shall give to the foster 
child ^ of a child's portion exclusive of his field, garden and house. 

192. In event a foster child shall say to his foster father or mother, 
"Thou art not my father or mother," his tongue shall be cut off. 

193. If the son of a gallant [libertine] or of a [gallant's] mistress 
seeks knowledge of his natural father's home from his foster father or 
mother, and turns away from them [his foster parents] and goes into his 
[natural] father's house, then his eyes are to be put out. 

194. If anyone leaves a child with a wet nurse and the child dies in 
the wet nurse's charge, and the nurse then suckles to maturity another 
child without the knowledge of the father and mother of the child left 
with her in the first instance, that nurse shall be arrested, because she has 
nursed another child without the knowledge of the father and mother, and 
her breast is to be amputated [upon conviction of the offence] . 

195. Anyone assaulting his father shall suffer the loss of his hands. 

196. Anyone destroying the eye of another shall suffer the loss of an 
eye as punishment therefor. 


197. If anyone fractures the bones of another, the guilty one, upon 
conviction, shall have his bones fractured in punishment therefor. 

198. If anyone destroys the eye of a freedman or fractures the bones 
of a freedman, he, upon conviction thereof, is to pay i "mine" of money 
[as a fine]. 

199. If anyone destroys the eye or fractures the bones of anyone's 
slave, he, upon conviction thereof, is to pay i of his value [to the owner 
of the slave]. 

200. If anyone knocks out the teeth of one, his equal [in rank], his 
teeth are to be knocked out, upon conviction of the offence. 

201. If he has knocked out the teeth of a freedman, he is to pay | of 
a "mine" of money [as a fine]. 

202. If anyone commits assault and battery upon the person of another 
one of higher rank than himself, he is publicly to receive 60 lashes with the 
oxhide [upon conviction of the ofifence]. 

203. When a freeman commits assault and battery upon another free- 
man of equal rank he shall pay i "mine" of money [to him in damagfes]. 

204. If a freedman commits assault and battery upon a freedman, he 
is to pay 10 shekels of money [to that freedman so assaulted]. 

205. If the slave of a freeman commits assault and battery on a 
freeman, his ear is to be cut ofT as a penalty therefor [upon conviction] . 

206. If anyone assaults another in a fight and gives him a wound, and 
upon oath declares he did so without intent, he shall pay the doctor [and 
be discharged from further punishment]. 

207. If the assaulted person dies of the blow the aggressor shall, under 
oath, state that he did not intend to kill; if the decedent be a freeborn 
person, he shall pay ^ a "mine" of money as a fine [upon conviction of the 
ofifence] . 

208. If the decedent was a freedman, he is to pay ^ of a "mine." 

209. If anyone strikes a freeborn woman, who is pregnant and thereby 
causes a miscarriage, the assailant, upon conviction, shall pay 10 shekels of 
money to the injured party in damages. 

210. If the woman dies, then the assailant's daughter shall be killed. 

211. If a woman of the freed classes suff ers^ a miscarriage through 
the assailant's blow, he shall pay 5 shekels of money [to her in damages if 
convicted] . ' 

212. If the woman dies of the assault the assailant shall pay ^ a "mine" 
as a fine. 

213. If the woman assailed is someone's servant and she suffers a 
miscarriage thereby, the assailant shall pay 2 shekels of money [as penalty 
upon conviction]. 

214. If the servant dies he is to pay | of a "mine." 

215. If a doctor performs an operation upon a patient [freeborn] and 
thereby cures the patient, or if he opens a tumor of the eye by an operation 
with a knife and the eye is saved thereby, the doctor is to receive 10 shekels 
of money for his services. 

216. If the patient is a freedman the doctor shall receive 5 shekels. 

217. If the patient is anyone's slave, the owner is to- give the doctor 
2 shekels. 

218. If a surgeon makes a severe wound with the operating knife on 
a patient, and the patient dies; or opens a tumor of the eye on anyone 
and the eye is lost, the surgeon shall have his hands chopped ofif. 


2ig. If a surgeon performs a serious operation on the slave of a freed- 
man with an operating knife, and kills the slave, he shall give the owner 
a slave in the deceased one's stead. 

220. If the surgeon has opened a tumor on the eye of a slave with an 
operating knife, and the eye is destroyed, the surgeon is to pay ^ the price 
[value] of the slave to the owner. 

221. If a doctor heals the broken bone of anyone or diseased soft parts, 
the sick one is to give the doctor 5 shekels. 

222. If he be a freedman he is to give 3 shekels. 

223. If he be a slave, his owner is to pay the doctor 2 shekels. 

224. If a doctor of beeves and asses [veterinary] makes a severe wound 
on a beef or ass and heals the animal, its owner is to give the doctor ^ of 
a shekel. 

225. If he does a severe operation on a beef or an ass and kills it, he 
is to give its owner J of its value. 

226. If the shearer [brander of slaves] without the knowledge of the 
owner of a slave marks a salable slave with the sign [sign used to designate 
a worthless slave] of an unsalable slave, the hands of this shearer are to be 
cut ofif [upon conviction of the ofifence]. 

227. If anyone deceived a shearer and has him brand a salable slave 
with the sign of an unsalable slave, the party guilty of the deception shall 
be put to death and his house is to be burnt [provided he be convicted 
thereof]. The shearer, upon making oath to the following: "I have not 
marked him [the slave] knowingly," shall be regarded as innocent. 

228. If a builder builds a house for anyone and finishes it, the owner 
is to give him for [every] "sar" of built surface 2 shekels of money as a 
present [in compensation for his labor]. 

229. If a builder builds a house for anyone and does not complete it 
firmly, and the house that he has built collapses and kills the owner, then 
the builder shall be put to death. 

230. If it kills the son of the owner, then the son of the builder shall 
be put to death. 

231. If it strikes a slave of the owner, he shall give slave for slave [for 
every slave killed] to the owner of the house. 

232. If it destroys property, he is to make good all that has been de- 
stroyed and, because he has not carried out finally the building of the 
house [contracted to be] built by him, so that it collapses, he is to build 
up the collapsed part and furnish his own materials therefor. 

233. If a building master builds a house for anyone and he has not 
carried out completely [his undertaking], and the wall threatens to fall, 
the builder is to make the wall firm out of his own money. 

234. If a shipbuilder builds a ship for anyone of 60 "gur" [capacity] 
the owner shall give him 2 shekels of money as a present [compensation]. 

235. If a shipbuilder builds a ship for anyone and does not make it 
strong, and the ship sails during that year [upon a journey] and sufifers 
injury [by reason of its faulty construction], the shipbuilder shall take the 
ship apart and rebuild it firmly out of his own materials; he shall build a 
firm ship for the shipowner. 

236. If anyone hires a ship to a skipper and the skipper is careless, 
and the ship is wrecked or destroyed, the skipper shall replace the ship to 
the shipowner. 

237. If anyone supplies [provisions] a skipper his ship, that is, supplies 


it with grain, oil, dates and everything else that belongs to its outfitting, 
and that skipper is negligent and wrecks the ship and destroys its contents, 
the skipper shall replace the ship that is wrecked and everything that was 
destroyed in it. 

238. If a skipper wrecks anyone's ship, but saves it [from total loss], 
he is to pay ^ of its price in money to its owner. 

239. If anyone provisions a ship or a skipper he is to be paid therefor 
6 "gur" for the year. 

240. If a freight boat collides with a passenger ship and wrecks it, the 
owner of the ship which was wrecked is to seek justice before God [present 
his claim under oath] ; and in event it is sustained, the owner of the freight 
boat, who has occasioned the wreck of the passenger ship, shall return to 
the owner of the passenger ship the ship so destroyed [or its value] and 
everything that was destroyed with it. 

241. If anyone forces an ox not belonging to him to labor he is to 
pay -J of a "mine" of money in penalty therefor. 

242. If anyone hires a field ox for a year he is to give to the owner 
4 "gur" of grain as hire for the field ox. 

243. As hire for the heath (?) ox he is to give the owner 3 "gur" of 

244. If anyone hires an ox or an ass, and a lion [wild beast] kills it in 
the field, the loss falls on the owner. 

245. If anyone hires an ox and kills him through bad treatment or 
blows he is to return to the owner an ox for the ox so killed. 

246. If anyone hires an ox and he breaks one of its legs or cuts a neck 
ligament, the lessee is to return [an uninjured ox] to the owner. 

247. If anyone hires an ox and knocks one of the ox's eyes out he is 
to give i of its value to the owner. 

248. If anyone hires an ox and breaks off one of its horns, cuts off its 
tail or damages some part of its mouth, he is to pay ^ the value in money. 

249. If anyone hires an ox and God [an unavoidable accident] strikes 
him and he dies, then the one who has hired him shall swear before God 
and be blameless [shall make oath to the circumstances and be discharged 
from liability]. 

250. If an ox, while going upon the street, strikes anyone and kills 
him, there shall be no legal claim for damages [the law will not hold any- 
one liable therefor]. 

251. If anyone's ox is a butter [dangerous], and his fault has been 
pointed out to the owner, who shall fail to wrap its horns and does not re- 
strain the ox, and the ox gores a freeman and kills him, the owner shall pay 
2 "mines" of money. 

252. If he kills anyone's slave he is to pay ^ of a "mine." 

253. If anyone bargains [seeks to lease his farm to another] with 
another one to take care of his farm and trusts him with grain for planting 
and with draft animals, and bids him to plant the field, and the one to 
whom the property is intrusted steals the grain or plants raised thereon 
and takes them for his own use, he shall have his hands cut off. 

254. If he takes the planting grain (?) [seed] for himself and does not 
use the draft beast, he shall return to the owner of the field the amount of 
the cultivation grain (?) [a sum equivalent to what might have been raised 
upon the land had he done his duty]. 

255. If he [the lessee] lets out the draft cattle of the man for rent or 


steals the seed grain and does not raise anything upon the field, he is to be 
arrested and upon conviction of the offence shall for every 100 "gan" pay 
60 "gur" of grain to the owner. 

256. If [he cannot pay the pena;ltyj his township does not care to 
pay it for him, he is to be left on that farm among the cattle. 

257. The rate of pay for a field laborer is 8 "gur" of grain annually for 
his services. 

258. If anyone hires an ox tender he is to pay him 6 "gur" of grain 
a year. 

259. If anyone steals a water wheel from the field he is to give the 
owner 5 shekels of money upon proof of his guilt. 

260. If he steals a dipping bucket or a plow he is to give 3 shekels of 
money to the owner upon proof of his guilt. 

261. If anyone hires a shepherd to graze out cattle and small animals 
he is to give him 8 "gur" of grain a year [in compensation for his labor]. 

262. If anyone a beef or a sheep [tablet defaced] . 

263. If he [one to whom a beef or sheep is loaned] ruins the beef or 
sheep that was loaned him, he is to return to the owner a beef for a beef 
and a sheep for a sheep. 

264. If a shepherd who has been intrusted with cattle and small 
animals for grazing purposes has received the wages that were determined 
upon [as compensation for his services], damages the beef or small cattle 
and makes the increase by birth smaller, he shall be accountable to the 
owner, according to the wording of the agreement for increase and profit. 

265. If a shepherd who has been intrusted with cattle and small animals 
falsifies the natural increase or sells the increase for money, he is to be 
arrested and [upon conviction thereof] shall return 10 fold the cattle or 
small animals [so claimed to exist] to their owner. 

266. If in a stable a beef is injured by an act of God or a lion [wild 
beast] the shepherd shall make oath to his lack of fault and produce the 
injured animal to its owner [and thence go in peace]. 

267. If a shepherd through his negligence causes injury to cattle in 
the 'stable, the shepherd shall compensate the owner in cattle and small 
animals to the extent of the damage, which he has caused in the stable 
[to the owner's property]. 

268. If anyone hires an ox for the purpose of threshing he shall pay 
for the hire thereof 20 "ka" of grain [for that threshing period] . 

269. If he hire an ass for threshing purposes the rate of hire is 20 "ka" 
of grain [for that threshing period]. 

270. If he hires a young animal for threshing purposes the rate of hire 
is 10 "ka" of grain [for that threshing period]. 

271. If anyone rents an ox, wagon and driver, he is to pay 180 "ka" 
of grain per day [for the use thereof]. 

272. If anyone hires a cart alone he is to give 40 "ka" of grain per 
day [for the use thereof]. 

273. Anyone hiring a laborer shall give him [for his services] from 
every new year to the fifth month [at the rate of] 6 Grochen of money 
per day and from the sixth month to the end of the year he is to pay him 
[at the rate of] 5 Grochen per day. 

274. Anyone employing a workman who is a member of an associa- 
tion shall pay him at the rate of 5 Grochen; a potter's (?) wages shall be 
5 Grochen, a tailor's wages shall be 5 Grochen, the wages of a (?) 


Grochen, the wages of (?) Grochen, the wages of a (?) 

Grochen, the wages of a carpenter shall be 4 Grochen, the wages of a rope- 
maker (?) shall be 4 Grochen, the wages of a (?) Grochen, the wages 

of a mason shall be (?) Grochen, per day. 

275. If anyone hires a ship [from another] he is to give for the use of 
the ship for each day, 3 Grochen of money as rent. 

276. If he hires a freight ship he is to give 2^ Grochen per day. 

2yy. If anyone hires a ship of 60 "gur" [capacity] he shall give i 
shekel of money a day as rent therefor. 

278. If anyone buys a male or female slave, and before the end of the 
month the benu-sickness attacks the slave, he shall give the slave back to 
the vendor and shall receive back from the vendor the money that he has 
paid [for the slave]. 

279. If anyone buys a male or female slave and a claim is laid to them 
[by a third party] the vendor selling without right so to do is responsible 
both to the owner and purchaser. 

280. If anyone buys male or female slaves in a foreign country, and 
he goes into that country and the owner recognizes his male or female 
slave; if the male or female slaves are children of a common country he is to 
return them without paying money damages [being called upon to pay 
damages to the owner] . 

281. If they [the slaves] come from another country the purchaser 
shall make oath as to the amount of money he paid for the slaves, and the 
owner shall thereupon pay back to the purchaser the money which he has 
paid [for the slaves] and take the male or female slaves into his possession 

282. If a slave says to his master, "You are not my master," and is 
proven guilty of this [of falsifying in respect thereto], his owner may cut 
ofif his ear. , 


The determination of law of the ever wise King Hammurabi, who 
taught the country proper law and the pious institutions. Hammurabi, 
the protecting King, am I. Men, whom Bel gave me, the government of 
whom Marduk has given me, I did not flee from; I was not dilatory, I 
furnished them with residences of peace, I opened steep passes, I let light 
shine out from them, with a mighty weapon which Zamama and Istar 
loaned me, with a keen glance which Ea determined for me, with the wis- 
dom which Marduk gave me; I routed out the enemies above and below 
[north and south], I subjugated the earth, I furnished the country with 
well-being, the inhabitants of the residences with life and safety, I did not 
tolerate a disturber of the peace; the great gods called me, I am the good 
shepherd [sovereign], whose staff [scepter] is straight [just], the good 
shadow [umbrella], which is spread over my city; at my breast I nurse 
the inhabitants of the land Sumer and Akkad [Babylonia], in my protection 
I let them rest in peace, in my wisdom I harbored them that the strong 
should not injure the weak, to make safe widows and orphans; I have 
rested in Babylon, I have rested in the town of Babylon, the town of Anu 
and Bel their head. In Sagila the temple whose foundations stand firm as 
heaven and earth, I have in order to speak the right of the land, to determine 
the matters of conflict, to heal the injuries of, my valuable words I have 
inscribed upon my memorial stone, upon my image, erected as a king of 
justice,, who rises above the kings of the city am I. 


My words are well considered, my wisdom has not its equal; upon the" 
laws of Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth, righteousness is 
to rise up in the land; upon the word of Marduk, my master, to my 
monument destruction is not to happen. In the Sagila that I love, shall 
my name be for ever, the avenging one, who has judicial matters [not 
litigation], shall come for the picture of the king of righteousness, shall 
read the inscription and understand my valuable words, the inscription 
shall show him [shall explain him its affairs], his justice he shall see [find], 
his heart shall become joyous [so that he shall say], "Hammurabi is a 
sovereign, he is a father to his subjects; to the world of Marduk he has 
furnished a representative for the word of Marduk; he is known above and 
below [north and south] ; the heart of Marduk, his master, he has given 
joy, for ever has supplied well-being to his subjects; he has brought the land 
into order." When he has read the record, he is to pray before Marduk, 
my sovereign, and Zarpanit, my sovereigness, pray with a full heart, then 
will the protecting deities of the gods who walk in the Sagila thoughts 
daily speak graciously before Marduk, daily before Marduk, my master, and 
Zarpanit, my mistress. 

If later, perpetually and for ever, the king, who is in the country, shall 
the words of righteousness which upon my monument I have written, 
observe, the law of the country that I have given, the decisions that I have 
ordered, he shall not change, my memorial not injure. If this prince has 
wisdom and is able to keep his country in order he shall observe the words 
that I have written in the inscription; standards of conduct and statutes 
and the law of the land that I have given, the decisions which I have 
rendered shall the inscriptions show him; his subjects he shall rule according 
to them [by them], he shall speak justice for them, shall render decisions, 
he shall weed out of the country wicked and mischievous ones, he shall 
furnish to his subjects well-being, Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, 
Shamash presented with the right, am I. My words are well [weighed], 
my deeds have not their equal to subjugate [reduce] the high one, to 
humble the proud one, to drive out the haughty. If that prince heeds my 
words which I have written in my inscription and does not injure my law, 
and does not misunderstand my words, does not injure my memorial, so 
may to that prince as to me, the king of righteousness, Shamash, make his 
rule long, his subjects he shall rule in justice. If that prince does not heed my 
words which I have written in my inscription he shall have my curse and 
contempt; does not fear the curse of the gods, defaces the law that I have 
given, falsifies my words, changes my memorial, extinguishes my name, 
writes down his name, or on account of those curses despises anyone, that 
person, with a king or master, Patesi (?) or citizen, whatever his name, 
great god-father of the gods, who has ordained by sovereignty, let him 
withdraw the splendor of the kingdom from him, break his scepter, curse 
his aptness; Bel, the master, who determines the aptness [suitability] whose 
order is not changed, who makes my kingdom large, the insurrection which 
his hand does not control, the wind of his downfall shall he let blow against 
his towns, years of governmental oppression, short duration of life, years 
of famine, a darkness without light, a death with seeing eyes, he is to 
determine for him his fate, the downfall of his city, the insurrection of his 
subjects, the abolition of his sovereignty, the oblivion of his name and 
memory, may decree with his weighty mouth. Beltis, the great mother, 
whose orders are weighty in the E-kur, the mistress who pays good atten- 


tion to my wishes at the place of the court and decision, shall make his 
matter bad before Bel, the destruction of his country, the destruction of 
his subjects, the outpour of his life like water into the mouth of Bel the 
king shall lay. Ea, the great princess, whose conclusions of fortune go 
ahead, the thinker of good, who knows everything, who makes long the days 
of my life, shall deprive of wisdom and understanding, shall lead him into 
oblivion, his rivers pen up in their springs, and not let grow in his country 
the grain, the Hfe sustenance of the people. Shamash, the great judge of 
heaven and earth, who keeps aloft all ways of life, the master of the courage 
of life, shall break up his kingdom, shall not carry out his right, shall stop 
his road, shall destroy the courage of his troops, in his dreams face bad 
prophecies with the extermination of the foundations of his throne and 
prophesy the downfall of his country. Judgment of Shamash shall over- 
take him at once, up among the living, cast down his spirit to the earth. 
ifle shall let him do without water among the Hving, without his spirit under 
the earth. Sin, the lord of the lord of the heaven, the god-father, whose 
sickle flares up among the gods, shall deprive him of crown and royal 
throne; the heavy guilt, the great ofifence, he will not soften; but he cast 
upon him days, months and years of his rule shall he spend in sobs and 
tears, he will increase the burden of his sovereignty for him, he shall give 
him as his fortune a Hfe that shall be like death. Adad, the master of 
fertility, the prince of heaven and earth, my helper, shall deprive him of 
the rain in the heavens, the water supply in the springs and shall destroy 
his land by famine and poverty, and shall rage powerfully over his city and 
shall reduce his country to flood islands [ruined hills] . Zamama, the great 
warrior, the first son of E-kur, who goes at my right, shall break his weapon 
upon his election town, shall turn day into night for him, shall let his 
enemy triumph over him. Istar, the goddess of battle and slaughter, who 
frees my weapons, my generous protecting deity, who loves my kingdom, 
in her angry heart, in her great grimness, shall she curse his kingdom, 
shall turn his benevolence into misfortune and break his weapon at the place 
of slaughter and battle. She will bring him disorder and rebellion, shall 
knock down his warriors, the earth shall drink their blood, heaps of corpses 
of his troops she shall throw down in the field, a life of mercy not spare 
him, shall surrender him into the hand of his enemies, shall take him a 
captive into the country of his enemies. Nergal, the mighty among the 
gods, whose conflict is irresistible, who lends me victory in his great 
violence, who shall consume his subjects like a weak reed, with his mighty 
weapon he will cut off his limbs, he shall break as an earthen image. Nin- 
tu, the exalted mistress of the countries, the prolific mother, shall deny him 
a son, shall grant him no name, among human beings she shall give him 
no descendants. Nin-karak, the daughter of Anu, who bestows mercy, in 
E-kur she shall inflict on him severe sickness, bad fever, bad wounds, which 
will not be healed, whose character the physician does not understand, 
which he does not know how to treat with a bandage, which Hke the bite 
of death cannot be averted, she shall let it come over his limbs till it de- 
stroys his life. He shall lament his vitality, the great gods of heaven and 
earth, the Anunaki, as a whole, shall cast curses and evil upon the sur- 
roundings of the temple, the walls of this E-barra, his government, his 
country, his warriors, his subjects and his troops. Bel shall strike him 
immediately with a powerful curse out of his mouth, which cannot be 

Plate No. i 

Plate No. 2 

Plate No. 3 

Plate No. 4 

Plate No. S 

Plate No. 6 






Scientific Director of the Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania 


THE author, in the preparation of this 
volume, has had the co-operation of well- 
knovirn, leading scholars of German Uni- 
versities with a vievr of presenting the vast 
material authoritatively, and yet in a popular form, 
to meet the great demand for a reliable work on the 
subject on the part of Bible scholars as well as 
students of ancient history. 



BABYLONIA" By Prof. H. V. Hilprecht 

University of Pennsylvania 

"PALESTINE" By Lie. Dr. Benzlnger 

Formerly of the University of Berlin 

"EGYPT" By Prof. Dr. Steindorff 

University of Leipzig 
"ARABIA" . . . . By Prof. Dr. Hommel 

University of Munich 
"HITTITES" . By Prof. Dr. Jensen 

University of Marburg 

The volume contains four specially prepared 
maps and nearly 200 carefi(lly selected illustrations, 
exhibiting the work and method of the different 
expeditions in the trenches, the ruined and restored 
temples and palaces, and the rich archaeological 

material brought to light in the ancient Biblical 
world during the past Century, special attention 
being given to such antiquities as have a bearing 
upon the Old Testament. 

" Explorations in Bible Lands " in one large 
volume (octavo) consist of nearly 900 pages, 300 of 
which are devoted to the first accurate account of 
the history and epoch-making results of 

'Pie Babylonian Expedition 

of tiie 

University of Pennsylvania 

By Its Scientific Director, PROF. HILPRECHT 

HERE for the first time is presented a thorough 
treatment of all the many important discov- 
eries made at NIPPUR In connection with the 
excavations of the great Temple of Bel, and its 
storied-tower ; the Temple Library, with its educa- 
tional and literary quarters; the walls and gates of 
the city, palaces, business houses, etc., etc. 
Published In one large volume 
at $3.00 net 




Scientific Works 



Professor of tke HsLrmony of Science aivd Revelation in Oberlin College. 

and its Bearings Upon the Antiquity of 
Man. With an Appendix on "The Probable 
Cause of Glaciation." By Warren Upham, 
F. G. S. A., Assistant on the Geological Sur- 
veys of New Hampshire, Minnesota and the 
United States. Fourth and Enlarged Edition, 
With 150 Maps and Illustrations. 8vo, 645 
pages and Index, Cloth, ^5, 

This Is without doubt one of the most important 
contributions made of late yeai-s to the literature of 
post-tertiary geology. — The Athenxum [Ijondon]. 

The most exhaustlre study yet made of the glacial 
period In North America. — Chicago Times, 

The volume is one of remarkable interest, and It 
may be said to be the first in which the subject has 
been exhaustively treated.— -Boston Tmnscrifpi. 

Dr. Wright's book is the most valuable contribution 
that has been made in America to the study of gla- 
ciation. — Sunday News [Charleston, S. C.]. 

The array of facts as detailed in Professor Wright's 
work, seem to the uninitiated like the discoveries of 
the diviner's loi.— Army and Navy Journal. 

The arrangement and method of the work are ad- 
mirable. The style is clear and interesting, the text 
is beautifully Illustrated by many cuts and maps, all 
well selected, and a large number of them new and 
made expressly for this wovTi.— Christian Vnion. 

Professor Wright has very clearly and strongly 
grasped his subject and worked out its details with 
an infinite amount of patience and painstaking. His 
book is -the most important contribution to, American 
geology which has been made by any American since 
the death of Agasslz.— Boston Herald. 

Though his subject is a very deep one, his style is 
so very unaffected and perspicuous that even the un- 
scientific reader can pursue It with intelligence and 
profit. In reading such a book we are led almost to 
wonder that so much that is scientific can be put in 
language so comparatively simple.— JVew York Observer. 

It is the result of years of indoor study and of out- 
door personal investigation, and although it is inde- 
pendent in reasoning and frank in expressions of 
opinion, it is notably modest, cautious lest unwar- 
rantable conclusions be suggested, and candid in the 
statement of the views of others. It illustrates con- 
spicuously the spirit and method of the true scien- 
tist. — The Congregationaliet. 

Professor Wright's work is great enough to be 
called monumental. There is not a page that is not 
Instructive and suggestive. It is sure to make a rep- 
utation abroad as well as at home for its distin- 
guished author, as one of the most active and intelli- 

gent of the living students of natural science and the 
special department of glacial action. — Eoening Bulletin 

Not a novel has in It any pages of more thrilling 
interest than can be found in this book by Professor 
Wright. There is nothing pedantic In the narrative, 
and the most serious themes and startling discoveries 
are treated with such charming naturalness and sim- 
plicity that boys and girls, as well as their seniors, 
will be attracted to the story and find It diflicult to 
lay it aside.— JbuTOoZ of Comvurce [New York]. 

This comprehensive volume will undoubtedly take 
its place as the standard work for a long time on this 
important subject. The author writes with more skill 
than most geologists, while he wastes no space on fine 
paragraphs. So much has been discovered of late 
that a full treatise needed to be produced, and it is 
matter for congratulation that the work has been 
done so fairly, so skillfully and so attractively.- I^'ferorj/ 

Dr. Wright is a professor of theology at Oberlin, as 
well as a geologist, and it is significant of his wide de. 
votlon to either profession that in a volume whose ul- 
timate result is to establish an antiquity for man far 
beyond that usually supposed to be given in the Scrip- 
tures, he has refrained from making any illusions what- 
ever to its theological bearings, beyond the brief pref- 
atory remark that he sees "No reason why it should se- 
riously disturb the religious faith, of any believer in 
the inspiration of the Bible." He shows a practical ap- 
plication of his belief "that it is incumbent upon us 
to welcome the truth from whatever source it may 
come," in the thoroughness with which he gives all 
the observed facts that bear upon a given phenome- 
non before his conclusions, as well as in his scrupu- 
lousness In acknowledging the aid he has received 
from fellow-workers, whether derived from their 
writings or from personal communications. In both 
these respects he presents an example worthy of im- 
itation by fellow scientists.— IVie Nation. 

The author has seen with Ms own eyes the most 
Important phenomena of the ice age on this continent 
from Maine to Alaska. In the work itself, e'.ementary 
description is combined with a broad, scientific and 
philosophic method without abandoning, for a mo- 
ment, the purely scientific character. Professor 
Wright has contrived to give the whole a philosophi- 
cal direction, which lends interest and Inspiration to 
it, and which in the chapters on Man and the Glacial 
Period rises to something like dramatic Intehsity.— 
The Independent. 

A work worthy of the importance and interest of 
his subject. It is not always, nor Indeed often, that 
a work of pure science can be made both instructive 
and attractive to readers not familiar vrith the prin- 
ciples of the science Involved. In this instance, how- 
ever, the subject naturally lends itself to what may 
be styled popular treatment; and the author has aided 
his explanations by a profusion of maps and pic- 
tures, the latter mostly photographic, which render 
his descriptions and consequent Inferences plain to 
aniy' readeir of ordinary Intelligence.— IKe Oriiic. 

Sciervtific Works 



With an Appendix on "Tertiary Man," 
by Professor Henry W. Haynes. Interna- 
tional Scientific Series. Fully Illustrated. 
12nio, 385 pages, and Index. Cloth, $1.7',. 
Tenth Thousand. 

The earlier chapter describing glacial action and the 
traces of it in North America— especially the defining 
of its limits, such as the terminal moraine of the 
great movement Itself— are of great Interest and value. 
The maps and diagrams are of much assistance In 
enabling the reader to grasp the vast extent of the 
movement. — London Spectator. 

It may be described, in a word, as the best sum- 
mary of scientific conclusions concerning the question 
of man's antiquity as affected by his known relations 
to geological tiTae.—PhUaddphia Press. 

As a'glacialist, the author of this volume stands 
among the first, and his long study of that remark- 
able period in the geologic history of our planet in- 
vests all he says about it with uncommon authority.— 

This important treatise gives the clearest of views 
concerning the present state of progress in the de- 
partment of inquiries concerning man's antiquity. It 
is a forcible presentation of the cycle of data on cli- 
mate, time, geology, physiography and archaeology.— 
PMadclpIda Ledger, 

Professor Wright's study of 
action of glaciers is thorough, 
for him to take his Information 
visited many parts of the world 
eyes glacial action. Besides all 
advantage of having formed a 
States Geological Survey. He 
work a vast fund of practical 
edge.— Jfe» York Times. 

the past and present 
It was not sufficient 
from books. He has 
, seeing with his own 
this, he has the great 
part of the United 
brings, then, to this 
and scientific knowl- 


With a New Discussion of the Causes of the 
Ice Age. Conjointly with Warren Upham, 
A. M., F. G. S. A. With Numerous Maps 
and Illustrations. l2mo, 407 pages, and In- 
dex. Cloth, $2. 

The Immediate impulse to the preparation of this 
volume arose in connection with a trip to Greenland 
by Prof. Wright In the summer of 1894, on the 
steamer Miranda. The work aims to give within 
moderate limits a comprehensive view of the scenery, 

the glacial phenomena, the natural history, the peo- 
ple and the explorations ot Greenland. The photo- 
graphs are all original, and the maps have been pre- 
pared to show the latest state of knowledge concern- 
ing the region. 

One of the most readable volumes of arctic travel 
yet issued, one which enables the reader to obtain a 
very satisfactory general view of one of the most 
mysterious lands on the globe.— 2)e(m( Free Press. 

No student of physical geography can afford to let 
this book pass unread, and Its graphic descriptions 
and numerous illustrations make it attractive to the 
general reader.— iiterarj/ World. 

The authors have prepared a most excellent work, 
which deserves the widest circulation and most gen- 
erous reception by the reading public. It is an honor 
to American scholarship.— TAc Critic. 

Frederick Wright, D. D., LL. D., F. G. S. A., 
Professor of the Harmony of Science and 
Revelation, Oberlin College. Illustrated, 
12mo. Cloth, p.^o. 

It is refreshing, tranquilizing and invigorating to 
consider border questions of science and religion under 
the guidance of so competent an authority in both de- 
partments as Prof. George Frederick Wright, of Ober- 
lin, in a work so scholarly, judicial and in every way 
satisfactory as his Scientific Aspects of Christian Evi- 
dences, a volume which is an elaboration of his 
Lowell Institute Lectures of 1896. Here is a Chris- 
i tian scholar, who is expert in both fields, the material 
and the spiritual, who does not rush off into sopho- 
moric declamation on the one hand or into timid com- 
promise on the other, but who in a manly and digni- 
fied way grasps the facts, separates them from con- 
jecture, puts harmonies In their relations, states ar- 
guments in a form satisfactory to opponents, and re- 
veals underlying grounds of agreement and unity. We 
advise some empiric doctors of both science and di- 
vinity to read and ponder such discourse as the book 
contains as to Darwinism, evolution, the contradic- 
tions and pai;adoxes of science, the deniable and the 
undeniable of miracles, the real substance at the bot- 
tom of the "New Criticism," and that whole field in 
which the charlatans and the quacks are disporting 
themselves so freely these days, to the terror of the 
weak-minded and the amusement of those who know 
something. No truly equipped scientist will take se- 
rious issue with Dr. Wright upon any important 
point; no genuine theologian will complain of him for 
Injustice to the truth. It is such granite blocks as 
this, of intuition, argument and phenomena fairly in- 
terpreted, that hold the ground against the current of 
conjecture, fancy and rhetoric that plays so wildly 
around the eternal verities.— iiterorj/ World. 



72 Kifthi Avenue, NeA?v Yorlc City 


" By far the Best Work upon that Subject." — Chicago Tribune 

Asiatic Russia 


With Ten Maps and Eighty-three Illustrations. In Two Volumes. 
8vo. Pp. xxii, 290 and xii, 340. Net, $7.50 ; postpaid, $7.95. New 
York: McClure, Phillips & Co. J902. 

THE AUTHOR has used the observations made by himself on an 
extensive trip through Asia as the basis of this work. The book is 
not one of travels merely, but is a comprehensive treatise on the 
Russian possessions in Asia. He takes up the Geography, Geology, Natural, ^ 
Political and Religious History, dividing it into the following five parts : 






VOL. I. General Description; Trans-Caucasia; Aral-Caspian Depression; Arctic-Ocean 
River Basins ; Arctic Littoral; Pacific Basin; Conquest of Siberia; Arrested Development; Occu- 
pation of the Amur; of Turkestan; of Caucasia; Pre-Russian Colonization; Russian Colonization. 

VOL. n. Russian Colonization (continued); Exile System; Trans-Caucasia; The Steppe; 
Turkestan; Western Siberia; Eastern Siberia; Amur Region; Means of Communication; 
Capacity for Development; Grounds for Confidence in the Future; Foreign Relations; Geo- 
logical History; The Climate; Flora and Fauna; Index; Bibliography. 

,. , . '."^,^* '^°^^ ^^? whole is a valuable and remarkably comprehensive presentation of Siberian subjects of 
all kinds. —Record-Herald (Chicago), July 14, 1902. 

"Altogether these two volumes sum up the impressions of an exceptionally shrewd observer of political 
and social conditions as affected by physical environment."— TAe American Monthly Review of Reviews. 
August, 1902, p. 251. 

• w* *?. *^°"'''^"' '^ ^^^'■^ 's a man in the world better equipped for the purpose than Professor George Fred- 
erick Wright. . . . It IS a work of the highest interest— one that ought to be read by all who desire to 
know about a race which has ever been on terms of friendship with us, and one with which we are destined to 
come into closer relations in the i-atmt."— Inquirer (Philadelphia), June 22, 1902. 

"Professor Wright's book is more comprehensive in its scope than any that have heretofore appeared, 
and has a field of its o^n."— Springfield Republican, June 8, 1902. 

Tu "^P'" *' J.^^^* ^ ''°°'' has been written upon the subject which is satisfying and complete 

Ihe reading public already knows from the interesting little skits of previous writers that no part of the world 
holds more picturesque and historic interest than does this. But it can have no idea of how deep and how 

world-embracing is this interest until it has read what Dr. Wright has written about it It is difficult 

to see how any library can get along without Wright's Asiatic Russia. Certainly the subject is one of the most 
vital in the world. And, equally certain, this is by far the best work upon that subject."— Trttun* (Chicago), 
July S, 1902. \ o / 

^An Archaeologicdi.1 Tour to Greece and Itawly 

T"fram°t'hefr^^l|."^?.*^i'*'^'^"'',^°''='"'J^"'=*"<* teachers of the classics, ancient history and archeology who can be absent 
at Harvard oJj,'' ""^ '"S 'h* summer and who desire to see these lands under the guidance of a former instructor in Greek 
Th f ^ ™^F"''e>' of the American School at Athens in 1897-1899. 

■riven S^HL'^aM^ from New York for Naples about June asd, and go first to Greece, to which at least five weeks will be 
Cane^kn^^f^Z r,.,u"%., Y'c'nity, the party will probably visit Nauplia. Epidauros, Tiryns, Mycene, Corinth, Eleusis, 
fn It r ' " , P*"' O'y^P'a, ^tolia and Corfu, and possibly places of interest in Thessaly. 
Rpinrninp- the T^rt„Zut To- w °'^ ™S''* 1^'" ^^ ^iven to Rome and vicinity and the remaining time to Pompeii, Pffistum, Naples and vicinity. 
Mediterranean ?oute '' ''^°"' September 2d, reaching New York about September 15th, both voyages being by the 

The cost of the tour vijill be, as in 1902, but I475, which includes all necessary expenses for travel, living and sight-seeing. 
AS the size ot the party is limited and places are already taken, applications should be made at an early date. 
T I 'P'Pi5"°'f°^)°"'' IS endorsed by leading educators such as Profs. John Williams White, of Harvard; T. D. Seymour, of Yale- 
J. irvmg -■uanatt, ot Brown, and M. L. D'Ooge, of Michigan University, and the feasibility of summer travel in Greece and Italy was 
demonstrated by the experience of the party ita 1902. = j ■ .7 j «»= 

For further information and circulars, address 


387 Central Street, Auburndale, Mass. 


Genealogical Scientist 

THE professional services of Mr. Nelson may be obtained in tracing any line of family descent, however intri- 
cate or indefinite the known facts may be ; especially where exhaustive search must be made through local, 
town, county or state records, either in the United States or in Europe. 
A special effort is made in every case to gather all possible data that would be of value, from a scientific 
standpoint, in determining the development and transmission of family traits or characteristics, either mental 
or physical ; to cite the historical and sociological environment of each individual head of family and thus enable 
descendants to study and know something more of their ancestry than is found in a mere catalogue of ancestral lines. 

Consultation and preliminary investigation will be made free of charge, and correspondence is desired with any 
person interested in, or wishing to pursue any line of genealogical research. Personal interview may be arranged for 
by correspondence. Address 

''^'"^'"'E^lftrotR^H'cCn^oKTHHPAST ' P. O. Box 473. Washingtoii. D. C. 

The Genealogical Quarterly Magazine 

AMAGAZINEj well printed, carefully edited, and intended as a repository of 
records valuable for genealogical purposes. 
Printing is the only way of preserving our records. The longer the 
subscription list the greater the work accomplished. 

A yearly subscription ($3) is little to ask of anyone to whom such a magazine 
would be either interesting or useful. Queries may be inserted free. 

Established I890 at Salem, Mass.; now Published at 14 Beacon Street. Boston, Mass. 

j|@»Three specimen copies will be sent upon receipt of $1. 
"omplete set, including subscription for 1902, I55. 

Lantern Slideis and Rhotographs 

Dr. Arthur Stoddard Cooley, of Auburndale, Mass., has issued a Catalogue of 

Photographs ofGreece and Europe ( with supplement dated July, 1901, and October, 

1902), from which list slides and prints will be supplied at the following rates : 

Slides, 40 cents each; ^4. SO per dozen; ^3S.OO per Hundred. 

The purchaser pays cost of packing and transportation. Slides may be rented for 10 cents each for one month or part 

thereof and K cents each for each succeeding month or part thereof; renter to pay cost of packing and transportation 

both ways and to make good damages after receipt of the slides. Prints of negatives will be sent for examination 

and may be retained at the usual rates or returned in good order withm two weeks. 

Rhotographs (size, about 3)^ lay 3}^ Inches). 

Velox Prints, 12 cents each ; per dozen, $1.35 ; per hundred, $10.00. 

Solio Prints, single print, 10 cents; per dozen, $1.10; per hundred, $8.00. 

From Negatives marked (B), 8 cents each. Blue Prints, 6 cents each; $5.00 per hundred. 

Complete Catalogues will be sent on receipt of Fifteen Cents, which includes postage. 

authorized american agent of a. rhomaides of athens. 

Address. ARXMUR S. COOI-EY, 

Lantern Slide Department 



We are prepared to furnish SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, CLERGYMEN and 

LECTURERS with Lantern Slides of 

lliGliaeoiopal Histoiieal and EtMcal 



WE CAN furnish Lantern Slides from the Original Photographs 
of any of the Illustrations that have appeared in Records of 
the Past. 
We have access to all the negatives belonging to the United States 
Bureau of Ethnology, the Geological and Geographical Surveys, and so 
can furnish Lantern Slides from the Originals of any of the illustra- 
tions which have appeared in their Voluminous Reports. These include : 

Aztec Ruins, Cavate Dwellings, Prehistoric Carvings 

and Hieroglyphs, Mummies, Pueblos, Ancient 

and Modern Pottery, Indian Types 

Taken from the Tribes now living in the United States and Mexico 

Our Lantern Slides are made by 


Former Chief Photographer of the Geological and Ethnological Bureaus. He has received Gold 
Medals and Diplomas at all the Expositions in this Country and Europe. 

His Colored Transparencies are known all over the World 




which can be made in any size up to 5 feet from the above-mentioned Negatives or others furnished us. 
For Terms and Further Information, address 

Records of the Past Exploration Society 

215, Third Street, S. E., Washington, D. C. 

If Yo\ir Friend is » 
CaLineraL Fiend 
Give (£™) ac 


This Cut Proves the Speed of the 

Goerz Do\ible An.acstigiTi^t 
••• LI^NSCS ••• 

The negative was made over two years ago when the series III Double Anastigmats worlced at a 
maximum opening of F : 7.7. They now work at F : 6.8, and are thus about 25 per cent faster 
than they used to be. Neither the price nor other properties have changed. 

Ask for full descriptive price list from your dealer or from the manufacturer. 

C. P. GOERZ OPTICAL WORKS, u£ ^^ New York. 



Consists largely of relics from the Santa Barbara graves, sup- 
plemented by relics, idols, etc., from Central America, Scandin- 
avia and the South Seas. Address, 

HEBER H. beadle:, Bridgeton, N. J. 

Bibliotheca Sacra, Vol. LVIII, 1901 

Contains the first of the series of articles by Professor G. Frederick Wright, bearing on the 
accuracy of the Old Testament History. They include 

Physical Preparation for Israel in Palestine : The Crossing of the 
Red Sea ; ant The Possible Population of Palestine 

Back Numbers can be Furnished 

If You Have Archaeological Collections to Sell 

write us for our special rates for such advertising space 
Address RECORDS OF THE PAST. 215. 3d St.. S. E,. Washington. D. C. 

Sunset from Walpi 



|URING the last week of August, 1902, Dr. Baum, the Editor 
of Records of the Past, while on an expedition to the Southwest 
for the purpose of investigating the Pueblo and Cliff ruins of that 
region, visited the Pueblo villages of the Hopi Indians at and near 
Walpi, Arizona. One afternoon while on the Walpi Mesa, the sky 
became overcast with clouds from a spent storm in the distant 
San Francisco range of mountains, the first time for many weeks. 
Dr. Baum, with two of his assistants, Messrs. Lorin A. Clancy and 
Charles M. Scarborough, decided to remain upon the mesa until after sunset for 
the purpose of photographing the various cloud effects. 

Only those who have had the rare good fortune of seeing the beautiful sunsets 
over the mesas and mountains of the deserts of the Southwest know of their glories, 
for the artist has never been able to transfer them to canvas. On this occasion, as 
the sun neared the horizon and the plain below the Walpi Mesa lay in the deepen- 
ing shadows of the coming night, the clouds lifted dbove the distant mesa leaving a 
clear strip of sky. Several plates were exposed until after the sun had disappeared 
from sight. The gem of the views made shows the sun distinctly defined in the 
clear sky about one-third below the horizon, the clouds being illuminated with the 
beautiful hues of one of the most glorious sunsets ever seen in that region. 

The view was made with a camera designed by and built under the direction of 
Dr. Baum. The focaLplain shutter was set at about the 1,500th part of a second. 
A Goerz lo^-inch focus lens was used with wide open aperture on a 31^ by 4^^ 
L. Ortho Seed plate. An enlarged print from the original negative has been 
colored by Mr. De Lancy Gill, of the Bureau of Ethnology, one of the foremost 
water color artists in this country. Mr. Gill has frequently visited the Southwest 
and is familiar with the peculiar tints of the sunsets of that region. He has had 
the advice of Dr. Baum, concerning the special tints appearing in this sunset, so 
that the colored photograph is as true to nature as human art can make it. This 
photograph in water colors has been accurately reproduced in the three-color pro- 
cess by the Patterson & White Company, of Philadelphia, on heavy India tinted 
paper, and is regarded as a rare work of art. Both the original photograph and 
reproduction have been copyrighted. 


In colors, on heavy India tinted paper, 10 X i2>^ inches $i.oo 

Black and white, Platinotype print, ii x 14 inches, unmounted . . . i.oo 

mounted 1.50 

Lantern slides from the original negative, plain 50 

Colored, after Mr. Gill's water colored photograph . . . . ' 1.50 

We furnish lantern slides of all illustrations appearing in RECORDS OF THE PAST 

at 50 cents each, or $5.00 per dozen. 
Transparencies in black and white, in any size up to 14X 17 inches for 5 cents per square inch. 
Transparencies colored, in any size up to 14 x 17 inches, for 10 cents per square inch. 
The plain and colored Transparencies are made by Mr. John K. Hillers, the celebrated photographer and 
colorer of Transparencies, who was with the late Maj. Powell on his expedition through the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado River and for many years the Ofificial Government Photographer of the Geological Survey, and has 
made many visits to the Southwest. 

Subscribers to RECORDS OF THE PAST can have the reproduction in colors for 50 cents. 
Address all communications to 

Records of the Past Exploration Society 

215. Third Street, S. E.. Washington. D. C. 

{SpeoiEiJ. ComTbinatioML Offer 


Records of the Past is a strictly scientific publication, but we realize that a large number of 
the Laity, as well as the Clergy are interested in the great religious and social questions that are not, 
and cannot be, discussed within the limits of the popular magazines published in this country. 

Bibliotheca Sacra is now in its 73d year, and is the oldest quarterly published in the United 
States. The contributors embrace many of the most prominent men of the religious bodies of 
America and Europe. Under the able editorship of the Rev. Prof. George Frederick Wright, D.D., 
LL.D., of Oberlin College, it has reached the highest standard of scholarship, and the widest treat- 
ment of the great social and religious questions of the day. 

We are able to make a clubbing rate with Bibliotheca Sacra exceedingly favorable to the Clergy 
and Laity, Public Libraries and Reading Rooms, and will send to new subscribers the two periodicals 
for 1903 for $}, thereby saving to the subscriber $2 on the two publications. The annual subscription 
of Records of the Past being $2, and the Bibliotheca Sacra $3. 

Present subscribers to Records of the Past can have Bibliotheca Sacra for 1903, by remitting 
to Records of the Past Exploration Society ^2.50. The renewal clubbing rate to the two periodicals 
for 1903, will be $4. Bibliotheca Sacra is published quarterly at Oberlin, Ohio, on the first of 
January, April, July and October. Each issue contains 200 octavo pages. 

Professor Wright's fullest statement of the facts discovered during his recent trip through Central 
Asia bearing on the credibility of the Noachian deluge will be given in the Bibliotheca Sacra for 1903- 


Bibliotheca Sacra, Vol. LIX, 1902 

Janueiry Huxley and Phillips Brooks. Prof. William Newton Clarke, D.D. 
^13:^ Witchcraft and the Old Testament. Rev. Charles Edward Smith, D.D. 

The Steel Strike (I) Prof. Ernest Ludlow Bogart. 

Professor Paine on the Trinities. Prof. Frank Hugh Foster, D.D., Ph.D. 

Plenty and Famine in Egypt. Prof. G. Frederick Wright, D.D., LL.D. 

An Oberlin Interpreter of Ritschl. Rev. A. A. Berle, D.D. 

Why Did Amos Predict the Captivity ? Prof. E. E. Braithwaite. 

April The Latest Translation of the Bible (I). Rev. Henry M. Whitney. 
^ZZ^Z The Supernatural. Ex-Pres. John Bascom, D.D., LL.D. 

The Growing Socialism. Rev. Andrew Burns Chalmers. 

The Steel Strike (II). Prof Ernest Ludlow Bogart. 

Higher Criticism and Messianic Prophecy. Rev. Edward Hartley Dewart, D.D. 

A Study of Mormonism (I). Rev. George R. Lunn. 

July Resurrection 3000-4000 B. C. and the Old Testament. Prof. Howard Osgood, D. D. 
ZZIZ^l A Study of Mormonism (II). Rev. George R. Lunn. 

The Latest Translation of the Bible (H). Rev. Henry M. Whitney. 

A. D. Harnack's "Essence of Christianity. " O. Zockler (Translation). 

Christian Charity of the Twentieth Century Church. Rev. H. Francis Perry. 

Reaction Between Natural Science and Religion. Prof. Frederick W. Sardeson, Ph.D. 

Of Speci».l Timeliness are Prof. G. Frederick Wright's articles on the Flood in the April, July and October Numbers. 
April No. — Interpretation of the Biblical Account. 

July N o.— Considers the vast amount of evidence which has recently come to light showing that there has been 
& period of instability of the earth's crust extending down to comparatively recent times, which, from a 
scientific point of view, renders the scriptural accounts of the Flood easily credible. 

October No.— Presents ihe^ positive geological evidences going to show that some such wide-spread catastrophe as the 
Flood has actually occurred since tnan came into the world. 


Back Numbers of BIBLIOTHECA and RECORDS OF THE PAST can be furnished 





m^m ^m^m^m^m^m ^m^wd^mmim 



The ^^liff and Pueblo Ruins 

Are Most Convenient!}' 

ef Colorado, New Mexico 
Arizona and Utah 

Reached by Way of 

RECOGNIZING the great interest which has lately been aroused in these wonderful ruins, 
we have made such reduced railroad rates as will enable visitors to reach these marvelous 
structures with the least possible expenditure of time and money. 
The railroad rate is $28.00 for the round trip from Denver, Colorado Springs and 
Pueblo, which applies to most of the points from which the various cliff dwellings can 
be reached, This route also covers the famous "Around the Circle" tour, which comprises more 
noted scenery than any similar trip in the world. 

Tickets are on sale from May to October of each year and are good sixty days from date of 
sale, permitting stop-overs at all points. Transcontinental tourists may secure a reduced rate for 
side-trip tickets on presentation of their through tickets to the agents at Denver, Colorado Springs, 
Pueblo, Salida or Montrose, thus affording all who desire to do so an opportunity to visit the won- 
derful ruins. For free illustrated booklets, address 


General Passenger and Ticket Agent DENVER, COL.